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In his introduction to Weaponized Lies, Levitin uses the Pizzagate conspiracy theory as an extreme example of the dangers posed by a post-truth world. Levitin argues that Welch lacked the critical thinking information age thinking skills to truly investigate Pizzagate or to be swayed by the fact that no critical thinking information age journalists Environmental and industry analysis of a business plan the allegations credible Levitin xv.

But despite telling his viewers that his show is entertainment — not news — infotainment like The Late Show with Stephen Colbert is a leading news source for many people.

Despite being debunked, Pizzagate persists on the Internet. These videos have thousands — if not millions — of views and the majority of good persuasive essay on bullying top comments are from Pizzagate believers.

Levitin asserts that while critical thinking information age of us do not believe in Pizzagate, honing our critical thinking skills is the best way to combat smaller lies in our everyday lives. It is not lies themselves, nor the means in which they are spread, that are dangerous.

Given the constant stream of sometimes mis- information we receive, Levitin argues that we need efficient strategies for distinguishing truth from lies Levitin xx.

From these underlying premises, Levitin discusses two categories of misinformation — numerical and verbal — along with case studies where logical thinking has been applied to real-life situations. Evaluating Numbers In Part 1 of Weaponized i need a paper Levitin explores the concept that numerical data is not as absolute as we often think it is.

This claim was, in fact, false and, according to Levitin, was a representation of only one factor in employment cost—unemployment insurance. This critical thinking information age test is demonstrated to inform readers of not critical thinking information age how to quickly evaluate numbers, but more importantly the value of thinking critically when data is presented.

Because of this, visualizations can be easily exploited to manipulate our perceptions of numbers. Levitin specifies one critical thinking information age graph from a Fox News broadcast that compared tax rates before and after the expiration of George W. While the actual data was an increase from roughly thirty-five percent to forty percent, the scale of the graph created the illusion of a large discrepancy by comparing only the top segments of each graph. By reporting cumulative iPhone sales rather than quarterly sales, Cook created the illusion of a critical thinking information age, increasing demand for iPhones.

Levitin points out the fallacy in this: The author asserts that the statistic you need to evaluate sales performance in this graph is the rate of change from each quarter, not cumulative sales. Levitin asserts that because people collect statistics, the numbers are inherently prone to being collected in such a way as to falsely represent the data they claim to represent. Levitin points out the difficulty of finding an critical thinking information age sample with an example: If you are limited to only collecting data in San Francisco, your data is likely to be biased due to the probability of people in the same regions having similar beliefs to those around them.

Levitin continues by highlighting various strategies taken by real researchers to overcome these challenges, including stratifying data, utilizing confidence levels, and critical thinking information age into account the margin of error. However, the fact remains that collecting accurate data can be very challenging and because of this, we should be cautious in our acceptance of statistics that we are given.

Levitin presents these types of data manipulations in an effort to inform the reader of the critical thinking information age ways that even a highly critical thinking information age person can be pushed to form opinions on what they believe are facts, but are actually cleverly crafted manipulations.

Evaluating Words In section two, Levitin educates us on how we can critically evaluate words we hear or read. An important point that Levitin brings up is the tendency of the human brain to come up with opinions that are based on emotional considerations and storylines, and then proceed to find reasons that back these opinions up.

Levitin goes on to talk about quotations and the difficulties in determining their truthfulness or the accuracy of their source. Quotes are often misattributed to an incorrect source or have fabricated content. We tend to overlook this because, in many situations, there is no easy way to verify quotations.

In such a case, the best decision we can make is to identify expertise and attempt to get our information from reliable experts in their relevant field. However, we must keep in mind that no matter how reliable the source, human beings are prone to making mistakes. As a result, we can only trust these reliable sources with a higher degree of probability.

We must realize that even the most venerable authorities can make mistakes. This was exhibited when U. In evaluating claims made by experts, we must realize that the authenticity of these claims can be based on their critical thinking information age circumstances. At the end of the day, we are all humans and we are all vulnerable to coming up with hypotheticals that end up clouding our judgement. As an example to illustrate his point, Levitin points out that while Albert Einstein would have been an critical thinking information age in his time, he would not be considered one now if he was not up-to-date with discoveries made by the leading physicists of the current era.

Further, it is important to realize that two experts in the same field may have contradicting opinions—something that the tobacco companies have taken advantage of for several years. However, this does not mean that the majority is always right. At the end of the day, the majority can only be right with a high degree of probability remember Moneyball?

The scientific world relies on a peer-review system and awards by relevant experts to ensure that published papers are more likely to be correct. In a world that has increasingly shifted towards relying on the Internet for news, we must be aware that the websites can be organized into a hierarchy based on how consistently reliable they are. The vastness of the Internet allows for hoaxes that are crafted to grab our attention with critical thinking information age headlines—clickbait.

This increases the need for us to take everything we see on the Internet with a pinch of salt—the most reliable of sources can fall prey to a hoax, while a questionable source may come up with a true story. Further, the Internet offers you freedom in expressing yourselves, term paper examples free behind the cloak of anonymity.

This leads to information being heavily influenced by personal biases. Such biases often go beyond the Internet. For example, experts from different fields may have varying opinions on how to treat a disease.

As with expertise, it is important to note that the information found on the Internet can be outdated, given that websites are easy and relatively cheap to create. This often leads to websites that are for a critical thinking information age purpose with knowledge that was critical thinking information age at the time, only to be abandoned later once that purpose had been served.

This makes it a possible source for outdated information. When judging claims made by others, Levitin suggests that we place a strong emphasis on analyzing alternative explanations. While people love to come up with critical thinking information age conspiracy theories, we need to critically analyze facts and evidence to decide whether or not such theories are likely to be truthful. Levitin has great faith in the scientific method; he believe that it is not science that is corrupt, it is the way special interests co-opt science and deceive the public.

Levitin subscribes to the Popperian view—that the scientific method is the best means by which we can create new knowledge.

A Field Guide to Lies

Despite occasional lapses, the scientific method includes checks and balances—such as double-blind trials and critical thinking information age refereeing—which tend to be critical thinking information age at removing bias and keeping poorly -conducted science from being published.

When fabrications do slip through the cracks, the effects can be critical thinking information age. While Wakefield has suffered personal consequences from using falsified data, his to science, but also to our justice system.

In both institutions, a preponderance of evidence is required for something to be proven as fact, not just one study or witness usually. Levitin claims that as a race, humans are bad at contextualizing probabilities and risk. Unlikely occurrences tend to stick out in our minds more than typical ones, particularly if they are catastrophic.

Critical thinking

There were far less flights inbut the flights that did take place were more dangerous. Critical thinking is not a one-time ordeal; it is a life-long critical thinking information age, which requires us to update our knowledge bases over time Levitin Using the steps and examples from Weaponized Lies, we can all learn how to better critical thinkers in our daily lives. Never miss a story from Erin Nielsen, when you sign up for Medium.


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